"Bulletin Board" For Broadcasting Vaccine Supply/DemandPrimary Investigator:

Arun Ramanujapuram , Logistimo, Inc. , Bangalore , India - IN

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Arun Ramanujapuram of Logistimo, Inc. in India proposes to develop a mobile-phone based "bulletin-board" for capturing and broadcasting availability and demand information for vaccines and medicines. By bringing real-time visibility to these essential goods, stock can be appropriately redistributed to areas of need, and waste can be reduced.

A Biotic Stress Sensor Printed on Maize LeavesPrimary Investigator:

Hideaki Tsutsui , University of California Riverside , Riverside , CA , United States - US

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Hideaki Tsutsui of the University of California, Riverside in the U.S. will develop a low-cost stamp to directly print biosensors on maize leaves for colorimetric detection of biotic stresses.  The strategy is to develop an immunochromatographic assay using microneedle probes while printing an easily-read color-change detector.

A Device for Self-Sampling of Blood for Infectious DiseasePrimary Investigator:

Ian Matthews , Cardiff University , Cardiff , United Kingdom - GB

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Ian Matthews of Cardiff University in the United Kingdom proposes to develop a self-sampling micro-needle patch device for the collection of small volumes of blood. Micro-needles will be fabricated using Deep Reactive Ion Etching. The device will permit non-refrigerated transport of collected blood for subsequent assays for diagnosis of infectious disease.

A Diagostic Test for Poor Anti-TB Drug BioavailabilityPrimary Investigator:

Christopher Vinnard , Drexel University , Philadelphia , PA , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Christopher Vinnard of Drexel University in the U.S. proposes to develop a low-cost point-of-care urine test that can safely and accurately identify tuberculosis patients who poorly absorb anti-TB drugs. Testing patients for inadequate drug bioavailability could enable better drug dose optimization and decrease transmission rates.

A Microbial Platform for the Biosynthesis of New DrugsPrimary Investigator:

Christina Smolke , Stanford University , Stanford , CA , United States - US

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Christina Smolke of Stanford University in the U.S. will develop synthetic biology platforms to improve the scale and efficiency of microbial systems used to discover, develop, and produce drugs based on natural products.  Such new biosynthesis approaches could lead to new and less expensive drugs for global health.

A Mobile Cloud System to Achieve Universal VacccinationPrimary Investigator:

Alain Labrique , Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health , Baltimore , MD , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Alain Labrique of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in the U.S. will develop and field test in rural Bangladesh a cloud-based mobile phone system that will allow for universal access to vaccination records, send vaccine reminders and messaging, and provide incentives to parents and health care workers via a phone application. This new strategy could increase the reach, coverage, and public acceptance of immunization.

A Passive Solar Thermal Standard for Vaccine Storage RoomsPrimary Investigator:

Loriana  Dembele , Eau et Vie Jiduma , Bamako , Mali - ML

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Loriana Dembele of Eau et Vie Jiduma in Mali proposes to develop new architecture and construction guidelines for vaccine storage rooms in hot climates that incorporate passive solar thermal technologies to keep vaccines at recommended temperatures. The team will construct and test prototype storage facilities using a variety of building materials to determine new standards that prevent vaccine spoilage, reduce operating costs, and improve refrigeration capabilities.

A Predictive Model for Vaccine Testing Based on AptamersPrimary Investigator:

Alexander Douglas , Jenner Institute, University of Oxford , Oxford , United Kingdom - GB

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Alexander Douglas of the Jenner Institute, University of Oxford in the United Kingdom will use synthetic nucleic acid molecules known as aptamers to develop a model that can be used to predict the success or failure of new vaccines in clinical trials. This work could help to remove some of the uncertainty in the early-stage development of new vaccines.

A Probiotic-based Approach To Improve Child Nutrition Primary Investigator:

Alip Borthakur , University of Illinois at Chicago , Plainfield , IL , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Alip Borthakur of the University of Illinois at Chicago in the U.S. will characterize the effects of probiotics on epithelial uptake of the fatty acid butyrate in vitro and in a mouse model to inform therapeutic strategies to cure and prevent acute diarrhea and malnutrition in children.

A Single Strategy to Attack Insect Vector and Transmitted VirusPrimary Investigator:

Stéphane Blanc , Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) , Montpellier , France - FR

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Stéphane Blanc of the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) in France will target a newly described structure at the tip of aphid stylets, the acrostyle, to block transmission of plant viruses and disturb insect feeding.  The proposed work will identify specific proteins in the acrostyle for targeting in future interventions.

A Synthetic Biosensor to Find Drugs Targeting TB PersistencePrimary Investigator:

Robert Abramovitch , Michigan State University , East Lansing , MI , United States - US

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Robert Abramovitch of Michigan State University in the U.S. proposes to use a synthetic biosensor strain and high-throughput screening to discover compounds that inhibit tuberculosis persistence.  Study of these compounds may lead to new drugs that limit the establishment of chronic tuberculosis infections.

A Transformational Vaccine Platform for RotavirusPrimary Investigator:

Anton Middelberg , University of Queensland , St Lucia , Australia - AU

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Anton Middelberg of the University of Queensland in Australia proposes to develop a new vaccine for rotavirus by the directed self-assembly of a safe virus-like particle in industrial reactors. The approach uses low-technology engineering methods suitable for the developing world, ensuring relevance to the communities most in need of vaccine.

Accelerating Vaccine Development Against P.vivax Malaria Primary Investigator:

James Beeson , Burnet Institute , Melbourne , Australia - AU

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

James Beeson and Damien Drew of the Burnet Institute in Australia propose to generate chimeric Plasmodium falciparum that expresses the antigens of another malaria parasite, P. vivax, allowing them to be evaluated as vaccine candidates. Because laboratory culturing of P. vivax is costly and technically difficult, this new method could help accelerate the development of vaccines against malaria caused by P. vivax.

Aerosol Delivery of Synthetic Lung SurfactantPrimary Investigator:

Frans Walther , University of California, Los Angeles , Torrance , CA , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Frans Walther of the Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center in the U.S. will develop an aerosol formulation of an advanced synthetic lung surfactant to treat lung surfactant deficiency and improve lung function in premature infants who are supported with non-invasive ventilation for prematurity-related breathing problems.

An "Oral Contraceptive" For Male Anopheles MosquitoesPrimary Investigator:

Luna Kamau , Kenya Medical Research Institute , Nairobi , Kenya - KE

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Luna Kamau of the Kenya Medical Research Institute in Kenya will investigate how feeding on selected compounds affects male Anopheles mosquito fertility and subsequently, mating competiveness. The compounds could be presented in sugar meals or introduced into larval breeding sites to control mosquito population densities, thereby reducing malaria transmission.

Arginine Metabolism in Indian, Jamaican and American WomenPrimary Investigator:

Farook Jahoor , Baylor College of Medicine , Houston , TX , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Farook Jahoor of Baylor College of Medicine in the U.S. will conduct studies to test whether healthy women in India produce less arginine, an amino acid critical for a successful pregnancy, than pregnant Jamaican and American women and will research the underlying mechanisms to inform possible interventions to reduce the number of low birth weight babies in India.

Bi-directional Membrane Device for Child DeliveryPrimary Investigator:

Sergey Shevkoplyas , Tulane University , New Orleans , LA , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Sergey Shevkoplyas, Lakhinder Kamboj, and Noshir Pesika of Tulane University in the U.S. will develop a microfabricated bidirectional membrane that can be placed in the mother’s vagina just prior to delivery to facilitate the baby’s passage through the birth canal. This simple-to-use device could significantly improve outcomes during vaginal deliveries in resource limited settings.

BioClay - Managing Biotic Stresses From Field to MarketPrimary Investigator:

Neena Mitter , The University of Queensland , Brisbane , Australia - AU

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Neena Mitter of The University of Queensland in Australia will develop a ‘BioClay’ technology to deliver biological agents that kill crop pathogens and pests.  This technology could provide broad spectrum protection to crops without the need for transgenic plants or the use of chemicals.

Biomarkers of in utero Aflatoxin Exposure and Child GrowthPrimary Investigator:

Zdenko Herceg , WHO-IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) , Lyon , France - FR

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Zdenko Herceg of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in France will evaluate the impact of seasonal dietary aflatoxin exposure of pregnant women in rural Africa by identifying epigenetic biomarkers of exposure, growth impairment, and disease risk. This will facilitate the development of interventions to improve child health.

Biomarkers of Nutrition Related Cognitive Development Primary Investigator:

Clare Elwell , University College London , London , United Kingdom - GB

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Clare Elwell of University College London in the United Kingdom proposes to use a non-invasive optical brain imaging technology (near-infrared spectroscopy) to study cognitive function in malnourished infants and children. This approach could be used to determine the impact of malnutrition on the developing brain and guide nutrition-related interventions.

Breeding the Epigenome in CropsPrimary Investigator:

Sally Mackenzie , University of Nebraska , Lincoln , NE , United States - US

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Sally Mackenzie of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in the U.S. will establish a strategy to exploit crop phenotype variations that are controlled by epigenetic changes for breeding.  The strategy is to disrupt the MSH1 gene in millet and maize, releasing a large amount of variation derived from heritable epigenetic changes that can be used to select for abiotic and biotic stress tolerance.

Business Card-based Bacteriophage TherapyPrimary Investigator:

Michael DuBow , Université Paris-Sud , Orsay , France - FR

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Michael DuBow of Université Paris-Sud in France will develop a biodegradable, water-soluble business card impregnated with bacteriophages targeting bacterial pathogens.  Cards would be enclosed in a plastic sleeve and be printed with pictographic instructions for diagnosis and use.

Cereal Drying Unit To Combat Aflatoxin ContaminationPrimary Investigator:

Meshack Obonyo , Egerton University Njoro , Nairobi , Kenya - KE

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Meshack Obonyo of Egerton University Njoro in Kenya will develop a simple, cost-effective, solar-powered grain drying unit for prevention of aflatoxin contamination in stored grain.  The prototype will use locally available materials and be tested in the laboratory and the field.

Checkmating PolioPrimary Investigator:

Panduranga Rao , Ella Foundation , Hyderabad , India - IN

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Panduranga Rao and Nagendra Hegde of Ella Foundation in India will develop and test for use in a vaccine a live single-cycle poliovirus that has been modified to eliminate the gene essential for replication. This highly disabled virus will be tested for its immunogenicity and its inability to re-emerge as vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). 

Choline and Optimal DevelopmentPrimary Investigator:

Steven Zeisel , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Kannapolis , NC , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Steven Zeisel of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in the U.S. will test the hypothesis that adequate levels on choline in the diets of pregnant and nursing mothers is needed for optimal brain development of fetuses and infants. He will develop and validate a methodology to measure infant memory and cognition for use in a larger study on the effects of dietary choline on infant development in The Gambia.

Deciphering the Role of Bioactive MicroRNAs in MilkPrimary Investigator:

Bogdan Mateescu , ETH University , Zürich , Switzerland - CH

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Bogdan Mateescu of ETH University in Switzerland will explore the role of mammalian microRNAs maternally transmitted to infants through milk. This project could lead to the development of innovative nutritional supplements for correcting unhealthy growth or protecting infants from pathogens.

Defeating Antibiotic Resistance Before It EmergesPrimary Investigator:

Paul de Figueiredo , Texas A&M Research Foundation , College Station , TX , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Paul de Figueiredo and colleagues at Texas A&M University in the U.S. propose to develop a system whereby drugs for defeating new antibiotic-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be developed in the laboratory before these strains emerge in human populations.

Defeating Ug99 Wheat Stem RustPrimary Investigator:

Walter Messier , Evolutionary Genomics, Inc. , Lafayette , CO , United States - US

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Walter Messier of Evolutionary Genomics, Inc. in the U.S. will discover genes in wheat that underlie resistance to Ug99 stem rust by looking for genes that have evolutionary signatures of adaptation. The strategy involves high quality sequencing of RNA from close wild relatives of wheat and doing a comparative analysis, looking for genes under positive selection.

Development & First Field Testing Battery Free Solar FreezerPrimary Investigator:

Steven McCarney , Solar Electric Light Fund , Washington , DC , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Steve McCarney of the Solar Electric Light Fund (SELF) in the U.S. proposes to accelerate the development and field testing of two solar powered, battery-free icepack freezers to provide a missing link in the cold chain where outreach efforts require frozen packs to cool vaccines during transport and immunization sessions. 

Development of a Microorganism to Produce ArtemisininPrimary Investigator:

Jay Keasling , Zagaya , Emeryville , CA , United States - US

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Jay Keasling of Zagaya in the U.S. will explore the production by an endophytic fungus of artemisinin, a key ingredient in malaria treatments. If the fungus produces artemisinin in the absence of light, an enzymatic mechanism is likely involved. This mechanism could be harnessed for a new production method to reduce treatment costs for malaria patients in developing countries.

Development of Extremophile Bacteriophage-based VaccinesPrimary Investigator:

Samuel  Duboise , University of Southern Maine , Portland , ME , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Samuel M. Duboise of the University of Southern Maine in the U.S., along with colleagues in Kenya, will develop a vaccine platform that uses bacteriophages that are structurally stable in one of Earth’s most extreme environments – the hypersaline alkaline soda lakes of Kenya’s Great Rift Valley. Vaccines produced using these engineered bacteriophages are expected to be inexpensive, stable, and easy to produce in regionally dispersed locations using common microbiological and biochemical methods that are highly scalable and adaptable for "just-in-time" production.

Development of Portable Technology for Rapid Aflatoxin DetectionPrimary Investigator:

Haibo Yao , Mississippi State University , Starkville , MI , United States - US

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Haibo Yao of Mississippi State University in the U.S. proposes to develop portable and cost effective spectral-based technology for rapid and non-invasive detection of aflatoxin contamination in whole maize ears for use by farmers in rural areas of developing countries. 

Discovering New Anti-Microbial Peptides Against MycobacteriaPrimary Investigator:

Erdogan Gulari , University of Michigan , Ann Arbor , MI , United States - US

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Erdogan Gulari of the University of Michigan in the U.S proposes to design and produce a large library of antimicrobial peptides (AMPS) that will be tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to identify potential new drugs that can damage the bacterial membrane and be less susceptible to evasion by the development of resistance.

DNA Nanodevice For Pathogen Detection Primary Investigator:

Eric Henderson , Iowa State University , Ames , IA , United States - US

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Eric Henderson of Iowa State University in the U.S. will build an inexpensive and robust nanodevice that uses DNA as a scaffold to interact with proteins and nucleic acid markers of target pathogens. When this interaction occurs, the movement will be detected by a reader embedded in the device to create a visual readout of pathogen detection.

Effect of HDAC InhibitorsPrimary Investigator:

Galia Gat-Yablonski , Tel Aviv University , Petah Tikva , Israel - IL

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Galia Gat-Yablonski of Tel Aviv University in Israel will test in a rat model whether histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can enhance catch-up growth after nutrient restriction, providing evidence for epigenetic pathways that might underlie stunting in malnourished children.

Effects of Placental Transfusion on Early Brain DevelopmentPrimary Investigator:

Judith Mercer , University of Rhode Island , Providence , RI , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Judith Mercer of the University of Rhode Island in the U.S. will conduct a randomized study to test whether delaying umbilical cord cutting after birth by as little as five minutes allows the placenta to transfer iron-rich blood cells to the newborn, reducing iron deficiency and anemia in the first year of life and promoting myelination of the brain to aid neurodevelopment.

Efficient Analytical Methods for Breastmilk MicronutrientsPrimary Investigator:

Lindsay Allen , ARS Western Human Nutrition Research Center , Davis , CA , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Lindsay Allen of ARS Western Human Nutrition Research Center in the U.S. will use recently developed analytical methods to simultaneously analyze multiple micronutrients in human milk to evaluate how nutritional interventions during lactation affect micronutrients in milk and subsequent infant status.

Eliminate the Cold Chain with Low-Cost Liquid Viral VaccinesPrimary Investigator:

Tarit Mukhopadhyay , University College London , London , United Kingdom - GB

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Tarit Mukhopadhyay of University College London in the United Kingdom and Stephen Ward of Stabilitech are working to apply a new liquid stabilizing technology to create thermostable vaccines that can withstand extremes of temperature and eliminate the need for a cold chain.

Epidermal Electronics for Continuous Pregnancy MonitoringPrimary Investigator:

Todd Coleman , University of California, San Diego , La Jolla , CA , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Todd Coleman of the University of California, San Diego in the U.S. along with John Rogers of the University of Illinois will develop wireless tattoo-like electronics to continuously monitor vital signs of the pregnant mother and fetus. The devices have the potential to be inexpensively mass produced, which could advance epidemiological studies of preterm birth.

Establishing an Anti-Vaccine Surveillance and Alert System Primary Investigator:

Seth Kalichman , University of Connecticut , Storrs Mansfield , CT , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Seth Kalichman of the University of Connecticut in the U.S. will establish an internet-based global monitoring and rapid alert system for finding, analyzing, and counteracting misinformation communication campaigns regarding vaccines to support global immunization efforts.

Feeding Tools to Improve Infant Nutrition and GrowthPrimary Investigator:

Amy Webb Girard , Emory University , Atlanta , GA , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Amy Webb Girard of Emory University in the U.S. will develop and pilot test the use of feeding bowls with illustrations of appropriate feeding practices during pregnancy, lactation, and early childhood, along with sieved spoons that can be used to test the appropriate thickness of infant meals, in an effort to improve nutrition and growth during the critical first 1,000 days of infant development.

Fetal Inflammation, Cachexia, Iron Uptake, and LBWPrimary Investigator:

Jennifer Friedman , Rhode Island Hospital, Center for International Health Research , Providence , RI , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Jennifer Friedman of the Center for International Health Research at Rhode Island Hospital in the U.S. will examine the role that chronic placental and fetal exposure to infectious diseases during gestation plays in low birth weight.  This work will form the basis of further studies to identify biomarkers for fetal inflammation in the maternal circulation for possible use in diagnostic tests to identify at-risk pregnancies.

Field Selection of New Disease Resistance AllelesPrimary Investigator:

Jonathan Jones , Sainsbury Laboratory , Norwich , United Kingdom - GB

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Jonathan Jones of the Sainsbury Laboratory in the United Kingdom will enhance mutation rates of R gene loci in a targeted fashion by creating transgenic plants with a mutagenic transgene. The mutagenic transgene has sequence-specific DNA binding domains fused to deaminases that mutate cytidine to thymidine (changing C:G base pairs to T:A base pairs), increasing mutation rates specifically at R gene loci.  Resulting plants would then be screened for resistance with promising lines backcrossed to remove the mutagenic locus.  Proof of concept will be completed in yeast, Arabidopsis, and then wheat.

Field-Deployable Nutrient-Rich Matrix for Crop ProtectionPrimary Investigator:

Julie Willoughby , North Carolina State University , Raleigh , NC , United States - US

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Julie A. Willoughby of North Carolina State University in the U.S. proposes to develop a biodegradable cellulose matrix platform comprising active ingredients for seed treatment. Widespread distribution of crop protection agents could ultimately increase crop yield without interfering with subsistence farming practices.

Fluorescent Protein Sensor to Diagnose HIV at Low CostPrimary Investigator:

Shengxi  Chen , Arizona State University , Tempe , AZ , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Shengxi Chen of Arizona State University in the U.S. will design and prepare a fluorescent sCD4 protein that changes color when it binds to the HIV pg120 protein. By directly detecting a virus protein instead of antibodies or RNA, which take days to months to accumulate sufficiently to detect, HIV infection can be diagnosed immediately to help prevent the spread of the epidemic. 

Generating Whitefly-Resistant PlantsPrimary Investigator:

Saskia Hogenhout , The John Innes Centre , Norwich , United Kingdom - GB

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Saskia Hogenhout of The John Innes Centre in the United Kingdom will generate whitefly-resistant plants by engineering transgenic cassava plants with RNAi targeted against genes essential to whitefly Bemisia tabaci survival and reproduction.

Geospatial Optimization ToolPrimary Investigator:

Payal Kamdar , VSolvit , Fillmore , CA , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Payal Kamdar of VSolvit in the U.S. proposes to develop a customizable Geographical Information System web application platform that integrates existing data in a particular region (e.g., population, locations of vaccines stores, health care facilities, transportation options, even weather) to maximize delivery of vaccines to target populations.

Good Bugs: Sustainable Food for Malnutrition in ChildrenPrimary Investigator:

Aaron Dossey , All Things Bugs, LLC , Gainesville , FL , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Aaron Dossey of All Things Bugs, LLC in the U.S. proposes to develop a method for the efficient production of nutritionally dense food using insect species. Dossey and collaborators will identify candidate species and test the nutritional value, shelf-stability, and palatability of a dried powder made from these insects for use in food products to help eliminate malnutrition in children.

Growing Nutrient-Rich Potatoes for an Impoverished WorldPrimary Investigator:

Richard Veilleux , Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University , Blacksburg , VA , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Richard Veilleux and Mark Williams of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in the U.S., along with Merideth Bonierbale of the International Potato Center in South America, will examine genetic and environmental influences that affect the accumulation of phytonutrients, specifically iron and zinc, in potatoes.  Understanding the interaction between microorganisms in the soil and genes in the plant could lead to strategies to alleviate human micronutrient deficiencies in populations dependent upon the potato as a staple.

Hollow Microcapsules with pH-Responsive MacroporesPrimary Investigator:

Carlo Montemango , University of Cincinnati , Cincinnati , OH , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Carlo Montemagno of the University of Cincinnati in the U.S. proposes to develop hollow microcapsules with pores that only form at neutral pH, allowing vaccines in the capsules to be released only after bypassing the acidic stomach environment and arriving at the mucosal tissues of the lower gastrointestinal tract. This new oral vaccine delivery system could allow highly immunogenic vaccines to be administered with increased efficacy and allow for vaccine dose-sparing.

Improving Fetal Growth Rates in Developing CountriesPrimary Investigator:

Laura Woollett , University of Cincinnati , Cincinnati , OH , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Laura Woollett of the University of Cincinnati in the U.S., in collaboration with the MRC International Nutrition Group in The Gambia, will test the theory that low levels of plasma cholesterol in pregnant mothers is a factor limiting fetal growth in poor populations. Determining the relationship between the cholesterol levels of the mothers and the size of their newborns could lead to better nutritional supplementation to reduce the number of low birth weight infants.

Improving Health of Low Birth Weight Infants Via Nutritional EpigeneticsPrimary Investigator:

Lin Xi , North Carolina State University , Raleigh , NC , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Lin Xi and Jack Odle of North Carolina State University in the U.S. propose to use metabolomic and epigenetic analysis in a pig model to explore the mechanisms by which dietary choline and DHA (docosahexanoate) supplementation in gestating mothers could alleviate the effects of malnutrition on infants. The data could inform the design of nutritional supplements for mothers to improve the developmental outcomes of low birth weight infants.

Killing a Virus With Another Virus: Tales of a Suicidal VirusPrimary Investigator:

Carl Spetz , Bioforsk , Aas , Norway - NO

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Carl Spetz of Bioforsk in Norway will eliminate sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) from infected sweet potato plants by co-infecting the plants with cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) engineered with RNAi against SPFMV.  Because CMV can only survive on sweet potato in the presence of SPFMV, it is itself eliminated as it eliminates SPFMV.

Leishmania Virus--A Diagnostic and Therapeutic ToolPrimary Investigator:

Catherine Ronet , University of Lausanne, Biochemistry department , Epalinges , Switzerland - CH

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Catherine Ronet and Mary-Anne Hartley of the University of Lausanne in Switzerland will target a naturally occurring RNA virus in Leishmania parasites (LRV) that not only aids parasite survival, but also causes a destructive inflammatory response in humans. They will develop and refine a LRV diagnostic device and formulate the virus as a vaccine candidate for the prevention and treatment of the leishmaniasis.

Low-Cost, Mobile Phone-Based Detection of Neonatal JaundicePrimary Investigator:

Chetan Patil , Vanderbilt University , Nashville , TN , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Chetan Patil of Vanderbilt University in the U.S. will test the ability of a mobile phone platform to perform measurements of bilirubin with sufficient sensitivity to accurately identify jaundiced newborns. By using the phone’s camera and simple applications to detect levels of bilirubin through the skin, a quantitative assessment can be made so that simple treatment can be initiated.

Materials for Food Storage with Antiseptic PropertiesPrimary Investigator:

Ewa Kowalska , Ulm University , Erlangen , Germany - DE

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Ewa Kowalska of Ulm University in Germany will develop photoactive materials with antiseptic and antifungal properties for food storage safety.  Titanium oxide (titania) will be evaluated for its antiseptic properties, the ultimate goal being a paint that could be applied to food storage containers.

Modulation of AHR Activity for Intestinal Health in ChildrenPrimary Investigator:

Andrew Patterson , The Pennsylvania State University , University Park , PA , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Andrew Patterson and Gary Perdew of the Pennsylvania State University in the U.S. will investigate the ability of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) to modulate intestinal inflammation and general intestine health, and they will test in a mouse model whether natural AHR activators given to nursing mothers provide protection to pups from experimental intestinal inflammation.

More Vaccination, Less Debris: Developing Compostable Vaccine PackagingPrimary Investigator:

Claire Dillavou , University of California, Los Angeles , Los Angeles , CA , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Claire Dillavou of the University of California, Los Angeles in the U.S. will develop compostable vaccine packaging to diminish the environmental impact of residual debris from mass vaccination campaigns in developing countries lacking adequate disposal infrastructure.

Nature-Inspired Nanoswitches For HIV Antibodies DetectionPrimary Investigator:

Francesco Ricci , University of Rome, Tor Vergata , Rome , Italy - IT

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Francesco Ricci of the University of Rome, Tor Vergata in Italy and collaborator Alexis Vallee-Belisle of the University of California, Santa Barbara propose to develop molecular nanoswitches that provide a visual cue when they bind to HIV antibodies for use in a rapid (one minute) diagnostic test to detect and quantify HIV antibodies in serum samples.

Net Zero Energy Warehousing Systems for Drugs and VaccinesPrimary Investigator:

Jonathan Colton , Georgia Institute of Technology , Atlanta , GA , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Jonathan Colton of Georgia Institute of Technology in the U.S., with John Lloyd, Andrew Garnett and Steve McCarney, will solicit proposals from industry to create a full set of requirements and engineering specifications for the development of a new “net zero energy” warehouse and distribution system for vaccines and drugs in developing countries.

New Approach in TB Vaccine DevelopmentPrimary Investigator:

Firdausi Qadri , International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research , Dhaka , Bangladesh - BD

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Firdausi Qadri of ICDDR,B in Bangladesh will attempt to develop an oral vaccine for tuberculosis that uses transgenic rice seeds to express recombinant antigenic proteins that will induce immunity not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also in the respiratory mucosa.

New Rice Resistance Genes via Targeted Genome EditingPrimary Investigator:

Ralf Koebnik , Institut de Recherche Pour le Développement , Montpellier , France - FR

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Ralf Koebnik of the Institut de Recherche Pour le Développement in France will generate rice plants resistant to Xanthomonas by making them unresponsive to bacterial infection by selectively generating new rice resistance genes using TALEN technology.  To infect, Xanthomonas activates susceptibility genes in rice using transcription factors (TAL effectors).  This work would selectively induce mutations in the promoters of rice susceptibility genes at the TAL effector binding sites by either transforming rice with a specific mutagenic TALEN locus or by directly delivering specific mutagenic TALEN proteins directly into the rice plant and then test for resistance.

Normal Cell Phone-Based Intelligent Biometrics for ChildrenPrimary Investigator:

Mohit Kumar , Hanseatic Institute of Technology , Rostock , Germany - DE

Topic:

Create Low-Cost Cell Phone-Based Solutions for Improved Uptake and Coverage of Childhood Vaccinations

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Mohit Kumar of the Hanseatic Institute of Technology in Germany will develop and test a simple biometrics program for its ability to identify children by analyzing images of their ears and foot creases captured by regular cell phone cameras. Images would be sent to a central server, which could then generate text messages back to healthcare workers and parents with health and vaccination information unique to that child.

Nutritional Strategies to Treat IUGRPrimary Investigator:

William Hay , University of Colorado Denver , Aurora , CO , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

William Hay of the University of Colorado Denver in the U.S. will use multiple types of nutritional interventions in a sheep model of placental insufficiency to test the hypothesis that there is a window of opportunity to prevent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Better understanding of the mechanisms underlying IUGR could help explain why nutritional intervention sometimes fails and could lead to better outcomes for infants in low-resource areas.

Ondansetron Use in Children with Dehydration in a Developing CountryPrimary Investigator:

Stephen Freedman , The Hospital for Sick Children , Toronto , Ontario , Canada - CA

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Stephen Freedman of The Hospital for Sick Children in Canada will evaluate whether treating children who have gastroenteritis with the anti-nausea and anti-vomiting medication ondansetron could help them better tolerate oral rehydration therapy. Evaluating this treatment in children hospitalized in Pakistan could lead to ways to help children survive potentially deadly infectious episodes when there is no access to intravenous rehydration.

On-Demand Vaccine Delivery Via Low-Cost UAVsPrimary Investigator:

George Barbastathis , Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology , Cambridge , MA , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

George Barbastathis of the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology in the U.S. will lead a team to develop Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that can be deployed by health care workers via cell phones to swiftly transport vaccines to rural locations and alleviate last-mile delivery problems and improve cost, quality, and coverage of vaccine supplies.

PartoPen: A Tool for Improving Maternal OutcomesPrimary Investigator:

Heather Underwood , University of Colorado at Boulder , Boulder , CO , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Heather Underwood of the University of Colorado, Boulder in the U.S. will develop and field test an interactive digital pen that works in conjunction with the partograph, a widely adopted labor monitoring graph, to validate data entered on the graph and provide alerts to health care workers regarding conditions that need additional observation or intervention.

Phase-Change Material Freeze Prevention Liner for VaccinesPrimary Investigator:

Nancy Muller , PATH , Seattle , WA , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Nancy Muller of PATH in the U.S. will develop and field test a durable liner for vaccine carriers that will be prefilled with an engineered phase-change material that responds to external temperatures by changing from liquid to solid to protect vaccines from freezing.

Plant Virus Elimination By Inducing RNA Silencing In-VitroPrimary Investigator:

Jan Kreuze , International Potato Center (CIP) , Lima , Peru - PE

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Jan Kreuze of the International Potato Center in Peru will use RNA silencing mechanisms to eliminate viruses from cultured plants in-vitro by introducing doubled-stranded RNA into the culture media.

Plant-Produced Synthetic RNA VaccinesPrimary Investigator:

Alison McCormick , Touro University California , Vallejo , CA , United States - US

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Alison McCormick of Touro University, California in the U.S. will test the ability of a low-cost plant-based synthetic biology method to produce a combined viral protein epitope with an antigen RNA expression system for use in an RNA malaria vaccine. Using plants for this viral transfection system could make RNA vaccine production scalable and cost effective.

Pre- and Post-Harvest Treatments to Reduce Crop Biotic StressPrimary Investigator:

Wassim  Chehab , Rice University , Houston , TX , United States - US

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Wassim Chehab and Janet Braam of Rice University in the U.S. will use light entrainment of plant circadian rhythms and mechanical perturbation to enhance crop biotic stress resistance in the field and post-harvest. The crop protection solutions are simple to administer and, if successful, may enhance smallholder farmer food security.

Profitable Vaccine Distribution In Emerging MarketsPrimary Investigator:

Lisa Ganley-Leal , Epsilon Therapeutics, Inc. , Newton , MA , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Lisa Ganley-Leal and Pauline Mwinzi of Epsilon Therapeutics, Inc. in the U.S. will test the hypothesis that selling vaccines through medicine shops in emerging markets can lead to profits for both vaccine developers and the small business owners. Demonstrating profitability may lead pharmaceutical companies to invest greater resources in vaccine development and distribution and develop local partnerships for profitability strategies.

Promoting Healthy Growth with Optimized Feeding PatternsPrimary Investigator:

Timothy Wells , Cardiff University , Cardiff , United Kingdom - GB

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Timothy Wells of Cardiff University in the United Kingdom will test the hypothesis that feeding patterns help regulate growth and metabolism by altering gut microbiota and a stomach hormone that increases the efficacy of fat storage. This research may show that “grazing” instead of set meals can optimize healthy growth in children where nutrient availability is limited.

Protein-Based Low-Cost Metabolite Biosensors For PneumoniaPrimary Investigator:

Andriy Kovalenko , University of Alberta , Edmonton , Canada - CA

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Andriy Kovalenko, Nikolay Blinov and David Wishart of the University of Alberta in Canada propose to use synthetic biology to develop protein-based metabolite biosensors. These biosensors will be used to create a simple, low-cost diagnostic test for pneumonia that is based on specific metabolite signatures found in urine.

Pulmonary BCG Immunization for Uniform Protection Against TBPrimary Investigator:

Pavan Muttil , University of New Mexico , Albuquerque , NM , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Pavan Muttil of the University of New Mexico in the U.S. will test the theory that inhaled live BCG immunization will elicit a stronger and more sustained immune response in mammals that have been exposed to mycobacteria than conventional intradermal BCG immunization. The new administration method could overcome the present variable protection to tuberculosis offered by the current intradermal technique.

Quantum Improvement in Reducing Malaria TransmissionPrimary Investigator:

Lawrence Braack , Okavango Research Institute , Maun , Botswana - BW

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Lawrence Braack of the Okavango Research Institute in Botswana seeks to demonstrate that malarial mosquitoes in Africa have a strong preference for biting on ankles and feet, and by protecting the lower legs and feet of people who are active outdoors in the early evening with repellants and insecticides, a major reduction in transmission of malaria could be achieved.

Reconstitution of a Synthetic Mycobacterium tuberculosis SystemPrimary Investigator:

Shaorong Chong , New England Biolabs , Ipswich , NY , United States - US

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Shaorong Chong of New England Biolabs in the U.S. will synthetically reconstruct essential biological processes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and use this system as a drug-testing platform for the screening of small-molecule therapeutics against multi-drug resistant M. tuberculosis.

Remote Monitoring the Cold Chain Distribution of VaccinesPrimary Investigator:

Nithya Ramanathan , Nexleaf Analytics , Los Angeles , CA , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Nithya Ramanathan of Nexleaf Analytics in the U.S., working with Direct Relief International and Medic Mobile, is developing cell phone sensors that monitor refrigerated vaccine stocks and generate geo-tagged alerts when vaccines reach critical temperatures. The sensors could enable affordable, remote monitoring of vaccine safety throughout the supply chain.

Resistant Starch Derivatives to Treat Chronic Diarrhea Primary Investigator:

Bryan O'Hara , West Virginia University , Morgantown , WV , United States - US

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Bryan O'Hara and Vazhaikkurichi M. Rajendran of West Virginia University in the U.S. are developing a chemically-modified resistant starch that ferments in the colon to restore a normal microbiota that will control chronic diarrhea and combat its resulting effects, such as impaired mucosal healing and the reduced ability to absorb nutrients.

RNAi of the Rate Limiting Aflatoxin Biosynthesis StepsPrimary Investigator:

Amos Alakonya , Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology , Nairobi , Kenya - KE

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Amos Alakonya of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology in Kenya will create transgenic maize with RNA interfering constructs targeting key aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin biosynthesis enzymes.  The goal is to prevent synthesis of these toxins by Aspergillus fungi.

Robust Mobile Component for Logistics (mLMIS)Primary Investigator:

Anup Akkihal , Logistimo Inc. , Bangalore , India - IN

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Anup Akkihal of Logistimo Inc. in India proposes to develop a cloud-based mobile supply chain platform that allows real-time data to be accessed by mobile phone and web-based applications enabling information sharing and optimized decision support that can maximize immunization coverage for children worldwide.

Role of Bacteria in Maternal Nutrition and Infant HealthPrimary Investigator:

Gregor Reid , Lawson Health Research Institute , London , Canada - CA

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Gregor Reid of the University of Western Ontario and the Lawson Health Research Institute in Canada, with colleagues in Tanzania will test whether Moringa-supplemented yogurt can benefit under-nourished pregnant women by converting their intestinal microbial community  into one resembling that from well-nourished women and by improving their breast milk quality.

Seed-based Vaccine Production and Delivery PlatformPrimary Investigator:

Eva Stoger , University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences , Vienna , Austria - AT

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Eva Stoger of the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Austria proposes to engineer edible cereal seeds such as maize and barley to produce recombinant antigens for use in edible multi-component subunit vaccines against infectious diseases. These oral vaccines would employ bioencapsulation to ensure efficient delivery to the gut mucosa.

Self-Administered Adhesive Plaster for Diagnosis of TuberculosisPrimary Investigator:

Hossam Haick , Technion - Israel Institute of Technology , Haifa , Israel - IL

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Hossam Haick of Technion - Israel Institute of Technology in Israel will develop and test self-administered adhesive sensors that can be put on the skin of the chest and detect volatile biomarkers emitted through the skin that indicate tuberculosis infection.

Simple and Rapid Recognition of Preterm Infants With RDSPrimary Investigator:

Kathleen Bongiovanni , Seattle Children's Hospital , Seattle , WA , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Kathleen Bongiovanni of Seattle Children's Hospital in the U.S. will test whether oral fluids routinely suctioned from newborns mouths immediately after delivery – instead of fluids collected by amniocentesis or aspiration – can be used in a surfactant foam stability test to diagnose lung immaturity and predict respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The non-invasive sample collection would enable skilled birth attendants in developing countries to detect lung immaturity in premature babies and reduce RDS-associated morbidity and mortality.

Simultaneous Screening For 21 Respiratory PathogensPrimary Investigator:

Lilian Waiboci , Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention- Kenya , Nairobi , Kenya - KE

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Lilian Waiboci of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention- Kenya will use new technology to screen respiratory specimens from hospitals in Kenya for 21 pathogens, bacteria and viruses that all cause lower respiratory tract illnesses. Data generated from these screens will allow for better tracking of circulating pathogens, inform more effective treatments, and potentially reduce the development of drug resistance.

Single Vial System SVSPrimary Investigator:

Spyridon Tsakas , Eulysis UK Limited , Edinburgh , United Kingdom - GB

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Spyridon Tsakas of Eulysis UK Limited in the United Kingdom will test an innovative single vial system (SVS) technology that allows for easier transport, reconstitution, and storage of vaccines with lyophilized components. Data gathered on its packaging, transportability and in situ lyophilization potential will help optimize the technology for safe vaccine delivery to the developing world.

Single-Cell EPR Sensors for Rapid Diagnostic Tests of MalariaPrimary Investigator:

Pingshan Wang , Clemson University , Clemson , SC , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Pingshan Wang of Clemson University in the U.S. will develop and test an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) sensor that uses radio-frequency interference to boost its sensitivity for the detection of malaria pigment in a single red or white blood cell. Such devices could allow for accurate and quantitative malaria diagnostics with blood or non-invasive finger-tip test systems.

Smart Bowl Conveys Cassava to Market with Pest ControlPrimary Investigator:

John Brassil , Functional Circulation , Northbrook , IL , United States - US

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

John Brassil of Functional Circulation LLC in the U.S. will augment the bowls used by women to transport cassava roots to market by incorporating pest controlling elements and passive communicating elements such as radio-frequency identification (RFID).  Pest repellant materials will be molded into the inner surface of the bowls or applied post-processing. Bowls will also be fitted with communication devices such as RFID that could be used in epidemiological and agricultural studies.

SMS Mobile Technology for Vaccine Coverage and AcceptancePrimary Investigator:

Edwin Asturias , Children's Hospital Colorado , Aurora , CO , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Edwin Asturias of Children’s Hospital Colorado in the U.S. will test a mobile phone short message service (SMS) system that will provide messaging texts to parents of infants in Guatemala in an effort to improve timely immunizations, increase vaccine acceptance, and provide a tool for reporting of side effects.

Spiroplasma-Mediated Defense Against Parasitic NematodesPrimary Investigator:

John Jaenike , University of Rochester , Rochester , NY , United States - US

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

John Jaenike of the University of Rochester in the U.S. will test if Spiroplasma, a bacterial symbiont in Drosophila that confers resistance to nematodes, can be used in crops to confer resistance to plant-parasitic nematodes.  The group will examine the effect of Spiroplasma on plant-parasitic nematodes and will attempt to introduce the bacteria into several plant species.

Stable Self-Adjuvanting Vaccines Via Peptide Self-AssemblyPrimary Investigator:

Joel Collier , University of Chicago , Chicago , IL , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Joel Collier and colleagues at the University of Chicago in the U.S. will design and test self-assembling peptide vaccine materials that are stable in the face of significant temperature fluctuations.  These self-adjuvanting systems may be more easily distributed to the developing world than current temperature-sensitive vaccines.

Surface S-Acylated Proteins - A Key to Cells with Latent HIVPrimary Investigator:

Adrienne Wilk , University of Illinois at Chicago , Chicago , IL , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Cure HIV Infection

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Adrienne Wilk of the University of Illinois at Chicago in the U.S. will investigate whether post-translational modification of S-acylated cell surface proteins alters the plasma membrane of cells with latent HIV infection. If so, these S-acylated proteins could be used to identify such latently infected cells that cannot be detected using current diagnostic methods.

Synthetic Probiotic to Identify and Prevent CholeraPrimary Investigator:

James Collins , Boston University , Boston , MA , United States - US

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Jim Collins, Ewen Cameron, and Peter Belenky of Boston University and Howard Hughes Medical Institute in the U.S. plan to engineer the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus gasseri to detect and kill Vibrio cholerae in the human intestine. The probiotic could be supplied as an inexpensive lyophilized powder to endemic populations to prevent cholera.

Synthetic Seeds For Clonal Propagation Of Disease-Free CassavaPrimary Investigator:

Paul Chavarriaga-Aguirre , International Center for Tropical Agriculture , Cali , Colombia - CO

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Paul Chavarriaga-Aguirre of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture in Colombia will develop protocols to produce synthetic seeds for propagation of disease-free true-type cassava plants. The work would use cultured somatic embryos as micro-propagules that can tolerate desiccation and be coated for storage.

Synthetic Signals to Eliminate Essential Plasmodium ProteinsPrimary Investigator:

Andreas Matouschek , Northwestern University , Evanston , IL , United States - US

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Andreas Matouschek and Keith Tyo of Northwestern University in the U.S. will develop synthetic compounds that target essential proteins in the Plasmodium parasite for destruction by its own protein degradation mechanisms. This strategy could aid new small molecule drug development efforts to combat malaria.

Taking Out the Bodyguards: A New Solution to Agricultural DiseasePrimary Investigator:

David  Hughes , Pennsylvania State University , University Park , PA , United States - US

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

David Hughes of the Pennsylvania State University in the U.S. will produce plants expressing RNAi designed to sterilize ant queens. The strategy will use aphids to deliver the RNAi to the ants: the phloem-sucking aphids take up the RNAi and pass it along to ants in their honeydew.  The goal is to reduce populations of ants that act as bodyguards to the aphids, thereby increasing aphid mortality.

The Use of Sphingosine1-Phosphate Receptor (S1pr) ModulatorsPrimary Investigator:

Silvia Vendetti , Istituto Superiore di Sanità , Rome , Italy - IT

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Silvia Vendetti of Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Italy proposes to improve vaccine immunization by transiently accumulating a high number of antigen-specific precursor cells in the lymph nodes at the time of immunization using agents that modulate cell migration as a new vaccine technology platform.

Transcription Factor Screening for P. falciparum TherapyPrimary Investigator:

David Segal , University of California, Davis , Davis , CA , United States - US

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

David Segal of the University of California, Davis in the U.S. will develop a high-throughput screen to search for artificial transcription factors (ATF) that are candidates to treat P. falciparum infections. ATFs could be a gene-regulating drug resource for the study and treatment of malaria.

Underutilized Fish to Reduce Anemia in Rural Pregnant WomenPrimary Investigator:

Margaret Kabahenda , Makerere University , Kampala , Uganda - UG

Topic:

Explore Nutrition for Healthy Growth of Infants and Children

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Margaret Kabahenda of Makerere University in Kenya, along with Barbara Stoeker of Oklahoma State University in the U.S., will work through local health centers to provide pregnant women with coupons for a low-cost ration of Mukene (silver fish) in an effort to increase women’s use of prenatal services and reduce their risk for anemia while improving fetal growth and newborn survival.

Use of Bar Codes for Vaccine Introductions in Poor CountriesPrimary Investigator:

Lauren Franzel , PATH , Seattle , WA , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Lauren Franzel of PATH in the U.S. will explore the use of bar code technology to improve vaccine supply and logistics management as well as strategic forecasting of vaccine supply and demand. Real-time data could ensure allocation of doses to where they are needed most, reduce wastage and inventory holding costs, and enhance capacity for strategic matching of vaccine supply and demand at a global level.

Use of Endosymbiotic Bacteria as a Bio-control AgentPrimary Investigator:

Maruthi Gowda , Natural Resources Institute , Chatham Maritime , United Kingdom - GB

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Maruthi M. N. Gowda of the Natural Resources Institute at the University of Greenwich in the United Kingdom will use a virulent strain of the endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia, as a biocontrol agent for controlling the whitefly, thereby controlling whitefly-transmitted plant viruses.  Wolbachia can both inhibit reproduction and egg laying and inhibit virus transmission, and can naturally spread through whitefly populations.  The work would identify the appropriate Wolbachia strain and determine the effects on the whitefly.

Vaccine Freeze-Damage Assessment for Improved Supply SystemsPrimary Investigator:

Richard Gilstrap , Innovar Scientific Inc. , Lynchburg , VA , United States - US

Topic:

Design New Approaches to Optimize Immunization Systems

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Richard Gilstrap of Innovar Scientific Inc. in the U.S. will develop and test a device for rapid detection of freeze-damage in widely used adjuvant-type vaccines.  This device could provide critical information needed for cold-chain optimization and effective immunization programs.

Vaccine in a Salt Shaker: A New, Safe, Low-Cost ApproachPrimary Investigator:

Shiladitya DasSarma , University of Maryland , Baltimore , MD , United States - US

Topic:

Explore New Solutions in Global Health Priority Areas

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Shiladitya DasSarma will lead a team at the University of Maryland, Baltimore in the U.S. to develop an inexpensive, safe, and effective oral vaccine against invasive Salmonella disease using gas-filled bacterial vesicles. The project seeks to produce a salt-encased, shelf-stable vaccine requiring no refrigeration for distribution worldwide.

Winter Melon Wax: A Novel Low-Cost Natural PreservativePrimary Investigator:

Kin-Ping Wong , Retina Pharma, Inc. , Fresno , CA , United States - US

Topic:

Protect Crop Plants from Biotic Stresses From Field to Market

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Kin-Ping Wong of Lotus Innovative Sciences in the U. S. proposes to develop the white powdery wax from winter melon into a safe and effective preservative against various biotic stresses for fruits and grains. Mass production of the low-cost preservative could facilitate their transportation from field to market.

Wolbachia as a Back Door to Synthetic EntomologyPrimary Investigator:

Ichiro Matsumura , Emory University , Atlanta , GA , United States - US

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Ichiro Matsumura of Emory University in the U.S. proposes to use synthetic DNA techniques to transform Wolbachia, a bacterial parasite that infects most insect species, in an effort to engineer mosquitoes to be immune to malaria parasites.

Yeast Receptors for a Generic Biomarker Detection PlatformPrimary Investigator:

Keith Tyo , Northwestern University , Evanston , IL , United States - US

Topic:

Apply Synthetic Biology to Global Health Challenges

Round:

Round 8 – May 2012

Phase:

Phase I

Keith Tyo and Josh Leonard of Northwestern University in the U.S. will work to engineer yeast-based biosensors that identify protein biomarkers in samples like blood and urine. An array of yeast strains could serve as a low-cost, in-home device providing patients with a panel of diagnostics to improve treatment and diagnosis in resource-poor settings.