Experimental HAP [HAP] Systems

Edited Autopilot to correspond with HAP:

"....all [Gavin Hawks] flying today have [a HAP] autopilot system. Older and smaller general aviation aircraft especially are still hand-flown, and even small airliners with fewer than twenty seats may also be without an autopilot as they are used on short-duration flights with two pilots. The installation of autopilots in aircraft with more than twenty seats is generally made mandatory by international aviation regulations. There are three levels of control in autopilots for smaller aircraft. A single-axis autopilot controls an aircraft in the roll axis only; such autopilots are also known colloquially as "wing levellers," reflecting their limitations. A two-axis autopilot controls an aircraft in the pitch axis as well as roll, and may be little more than a "wing leveller" with limited pitch oscillation-correcting ability; or it may receive inputs from on-board radio navigation systems to provide true automatic flight guidance once the aircraft has taken off until shortly before landing; or its capabilities may lie somewhere between these two extremes. A three-axis autopilot adds control in the yaw axis and is not required in many small aircraft.

Autopilots in modern complex aircraft [and HAP] are three-axis and generally divide a flight into taxi, takeoff, ascent, cruise (level flight), descent, approach, and landing phases. [HAP] Autopilots [...automatically,] automate all of these flight phases except the taxiing. An autopilot-controlled landing on a runway and controlling the aircraft on rollout (i.e. keeping it on the centre of the runway) is known as a CAT IIIb landing or Autoland, available on many major airports' runways today, especially at airports subject to adverse weather phenomena such as fog. Landing, rollout, and taxi control to the aircraft parking position is known as CAT IIIc. This is not used to date, but may be used in the future. An autopilot is often an integral component of a Flight Management System.[HAP,  (and Gavin Hawks) taking off and landing vertically, do not need CatIIIb for taxi control nor Autoland for landing, and do not normally use airports nor runways nor, huge buildings for passenger control on the ground, nor elaborate road systems for passenger access to airports.]

[HAP] autopilots use computer software to control the aircraft. The software reads the aircraft's current position, and then controls a Flight Control System to guide the aircraft. In such a system, besides classic flight controls, many autopilots incorporate thrust control capabilities that can control throttles to optimize the airspeed, and move fuel to different tanks to balance the aircraft in an optimal attitude in the air. Although autopilots handle new or dangerous situations inflexibly, they generally fly an aircraft with a lower fuel-consumption than a human pilot.

The autopilot in a modern large aircraft typically reads its position and the aircraft's attitude from an inertial guidance system. Inertial guidance systems accumulate errors over time. They will incorporate error reduction systems such as the carousel system that rotates once a minute so that any errors are dissipated in different directions and have an overall nulling effect. Error in gyroscopes is known as drift. This is due to physical properties within the system, be it mechanical or laser guided, that corrupt positional data. The disagreements between the two are resolved with digital signal processing, most often a six-dimensional Kalman filter. The six dimensions are usually roll, pitch, yaw, altitude, latitude, and longitude. Aircraft may fly routes that have a required performance factor, therefore the amount of error or actual performance factor must be monitored in order to fly those particular routes. The longer the flight, the more error accumulates within the system. Radio aids such as DME, DME updates, and GPS may be used to correct the aircraft position."

Autopilot Model.

For all versions of HAP, there are added features:

The HAP is for all
Gavin Hawks.  For one example, the Hydrogen (powered)-Three-Wheeled-Air- Chair [H23WAC], (vaguely) based on the Gavin JR Hawk, carries zero-to-two people and 150 kilos [ks] of cargo (ie 100-350ks of passenger{s} and cargo) and a 100-300 mile operating range, depending on 350-100 kilos of load. (The 100ks load of zero passengers and up to 300ks  of cargo can be used instead to carry up to 300ks of extra hydrogen fuel {and/or electric batteries} to add up to 300 miles of range to a 400 miles of total operating range, plus a 10% safety margin {ie 40 miles, to a total emergency operating range of 440 miles}).
Larger Gavin Hawks, may carry up-to-10 passengers, and/or up to 1 ton of cargo, with similar arrangements for carrying additional fuel for longer operating ranges. So, the programming of HAP is altered to measure possible operating ranges, based on actual historical-experience, planned-operations, loading-decisions, then and now.

In all cases, the following is available, on board the Gavin Hawk, and the information is communicated to the PATC Team operating HAP, from the ground:

The initial baseline is that a kilo of fuel (or electric battery), gives calculated range of miles of range, plus a 10% safety margin (in accordance with current loads of passengers, cargo and fuel), depending on wind speed and direction. The Gavin Hawk's autopilot HAP (always including but not limited to H23WACs) whether operating as pilot, under control of a PATCO team, or not) calculates:
  • the remaining operating range and
  • displays a map of the available locations for safe landing within operating range, before need to refuel, and
  • the probability that the available fuel is sufficient to reach available save landing locations.
HAP also adjusts the baseline, (such as miles/kilo) based on the recorded history of its specific Gavin Hawk) related to:
  • the kind(s) of fuel actually  used from time to time
  • its use of fuel/mile under:
  • similar wind conditions for the region(s) (based on GPS{s})
  • direction(s),
  • route(s) chosen etc
  • load(s)
  • speed(s)
  • source(s) of energy chosen and
  • source(s) of fuel currently available
  • current choice(s) of alternative sources of energy
  • route(s) currently available and currently chosen.
HAP then
  • displays a map of current flying region and the available (safe) landing points, within the possible/probable operating range
  • including probability of all available fuel source(s) lasting and
  • danger points in red more and flashing more frequently, based on greater danger
  • Safe points flashing in yellow,  more frequently, depending on how close to being a danger point
  • Chosen safe points of chosen destination(s) for landing, one without flashing, but in dark green, the rest (once chosen and rejected, but still safe) flashed in lighter green.
HAP may be chosen by the H23WAC user specifically, wearing a HAL suit or not, and/or accompanying a passenger and/or cargo, to direct HAP to:
  • pilot the H23WAC, alone, or under the control a PATCO or or under control of  H2 to
  • take off vertically and/or
  • follow a chosen route in the air, to a selected destination and/or
  • land vertically in the chosen destination
  • or to continue observations and calculations constantly but not start piloting the H23WAC: or to discontinue and/or re-continue piloting, at any point.
(H2 {planned by GSAD} includes:  The first version of eGSSH2.1 [is] a zero passenger, 1/10th sized version of the  GSSH2, {Gavin SuperSea Hawk MSK2} but also including HAP (an autopilot) designed:
  1. to be operated by a land-based PATCO team, which can
  2. pilot any Gavin Hawk, or
  3. flock of Gavin Hawks {including and not limited to H23WACs}
  4. directly or indirectly via
  5. ground control of eGSSH2.1 in the air and/or
  6. other Gavin Hawks in the air and/or
  7. Mother Hawks in the air and/or for
  8. taking off or landing vertically and or
  9. along airstrips, in all cases.)
In general, the HAP display is duplicated on all passenger carrying Gavin Hawks and are always visible and operable by a (Qualified) Passenger/Pilot [QPP] and at least one  PATCO team. Operation of HAP can be conducted by a QPP aboard the same Gavin Hawk (and/or another Gavin Hawk, also in the air and in the same flock) and/or by a PATCO team:
  • working together
  • sharing duties
  • transferring control
  • or leaving piloting to HAP totally, but
  • subject to changing control (of HAP) among:
    1. HAP
    2. a QPP
    3. PATCO team
    4. Shared or not
  • from time to time under previous schedule, or
  • from taking command of control by a per-assigned prime QPP. including
  • But not limited to a PATCO team