Amalric III

Medium Trimaran


Gavin Embry [GE], of RDL, has designed several versions of trimarans. The medium sized version is the basis of the Amalric III, described below: named after a (possible) descendant of King Amalric I (or King Amalric II ) of Jerusalem (also Amaury or Aimery) (1136 – July 11, 1174ad) was King of Jerusalem 1162–1174, (Please read:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amalric_I_of_Jerusalem)

Originally, the French versions of his name were "Amaury" or "Aimery", probably gradually evolved into Amory, Emory, Emery,  & finally, to Henrie, Harry or Henry Embrie, the name of Gavin Embry's [GE] 10th paternal (Embry) grandfather, who sailed from Gravesend, Kent on the America, immigrating to Jamestown in Virginia, in 1635ad, with his prospective wife, Joan Jobe, whom he meet on board (instead of Pocahontas). Also, Admiral John Smith was most likely an ancestor of GE, directly or indirectly (via his grandfather "Cottonhead" John Smith: But defiantly not a descendant of Sir Walter Raleigh.

Trimaran Background (extracted from Trimaran):

" Construction

Trimarans have a number of advantages over comparable mono-hulls (conventional, single-hulled sailboats). Given two boats of the same length, the trimaran has a shallower draft, a wider beam, less hull area, and is able to fly more sail area. In addition, because of the wide beam, trimarans do not need the weighted keel mono-hull, is able to sail in shallower water, and maintains its stability in stronger winds. However, its wider beam makes it a little more cumbersome to maneuver, so tacking and jibing can be trickier, and the narrower hulls provide less living space than an equivalently-sized mono-hull, required in mono-hulls. As a result, the trimaran offers much better straight-line performance than a mono-hull.

As the righting moment (the force that resists the opposite torque of the wind on the sails) is produced by a float on either side called an ama and not a heavy protruding keel, trimarans are lighter and faster than a mono-hull of equivalent length. A lightweight retractable keel, referred to as a centerboard is often employed to resist lateral movement, making many models easily beachable. Most trimarans are nearly impossible to flip sideways given a reasonable degree of caution, however, trimarans can reach speeds so great in a storm that they can plow into a wave and flip end-over-end. This hazard is especially dangerous for a multihull because of their wide beam. The front of the boat, often covered by trampoline, acts as a giant paddle rather than a narrow mono-hull would. To avoid this unfortunate scenario trimaran sailors are advised to use trampolines with a large weave and employ parachute drogues and sea anchors whenever appropriate.

The father of the modern sailing trimaran is Victor Tchetchet, a Russian émigré and a strong proponent of multihull sailing. Mr. Tchetchet, who was a fighter pilot during the First World War in the Czar’s Air Force, lived in Great Neck, New York from the 1940’s until his death. He built two trimarans while living in the US, Eggnog 1 and 2. Both boats were made of marine plywood and were about 24 feet long. Mr. Tchetchet is credited with coining the name trimaran. Aside from boat design Mr. Tchetchet earned his living as a landscape and portrait painter.

Advantages

Although it is possible for a trimaran to capsize, this is less frequent than with mono-hull boats because of the greater resistance to rolling that the amas offer. Most trimaran designs are considered nearly unsinkable because even when filled with water, the flotation of one ama is enough to keep the entire vessel afloat. Because of their stability and safety, trimarans such as the Challenger class have become popular with sailors who have restricted mobility.

Disadvantages

Trimarans capsizes are more likely to be of the pitch-pole type than a roll to one side due to their higher sideways stability and speeds. Capsized trimarans are harder to turn upright than mono-hull boats. However, many mono-hull boats sink when capsized. A capsized trimaran should not be righted by sideways rotation as this usually causes heavy damage of the mast and rigging. Harnesses pulling on the stern toward the bow, or from the bow toward the stern of capsized trimarans have been shown to be able to successfully turn them end-over-end. Several design features reduce the chance of pitch-pole capsize. These include having wing nets with an open weave designed to reduce windage and decks and nets that shed water easily. The best way to avoid capsize is to reduce the efficiency of the sails in heavy weather conditions.


Trimarans at anchor or mooring may follow the wind due to their light weight and shallow draft while mono-hulls usually follow the tides. This can cause collisions if the trimaran is close to another vessel and the swing circles overlap. A bridle to the anchor line may assist in reducing this swing.


Potential buyers of trimarans should look for one that is designed with amas with multiple sealed partitions, controls that all run to the cockpit. a collision bulkhead, partial or full cockpit coverings or windshields, and drain holes in the cockpit that can adaquately drain the cockpit quickly, among other things."



General Description of the Amalric III


The Amalric III [AIII] trimaran's main hull was originally called a vaka. The current, medium-sized trimaran's main hull [AIIIm], is twice as long as the Inspiration, just above: 60 feet ['] long & 8' wide, for flotation & voyages on rivers, lakes, seas & oceans. It carries sponsons (akas) on both starboard  [AS] & port [AP] sides, to stabilize & make possible a shallow draft of 6', or less, even when normally loaded.  The after end (20'x8') of the AIIIm is reserved for a platform for takeoff & landing of  Gavin Hawks, but can also carry:
  • Any combination of up-to-four-20'-long shipping containers, or DSs, in up-to-two rows of up-to-two layers (a possible total of four)  on the after deck.

The remaining 40'x8', AIIIm, deck space accomodates:
  •  any combination of up-to-eight 20' long shipping containers or DSs, in up-to-two in line, of up-to-two layers, or consisting of
  • any combination of up-to-four 40' long containers or DHs, in up-to-two lines of up-to-two layers or
  • any combination of  20' and 40' long containers, DSs &/or DHs (up-to 40' long), in up-to-two lines & up-to-two layers
  • alternatively, zero-to-eight GaviHas, ([DS] & [DH]) of appropriate 20' & 40' lengths, can replace zero-to-eight of corresponding lengths of shipping containers. If properly equipped docking facilities are provided, GaviHas can use drive-on-drive-off sponsons & AIIIm.


The platforms are elevated to 11' above the main deck level to clear the rotors of Gavin Hawks above the roof of any adjacent container or GaviHas. On the AIIIm, this can be raised another 11' to clear another container or GaviHas carried at the second level.  Underneath the platform, the area can carry up-to-four-additional-20'-long containers, or DS. While underway, the AIII must carry at least one  "Command" GaviHas [CDS or CDH], which is equipped to supply electric power & navigate it [DSn or DHn]. The Command GaviHas must be:
  • just below the landing platform
  • on top of any other container, or GaviHas not under a platform or
  • uncovered, on the open deck.

The sponsons are either AS (30'x3')  or AH (50'x6'). Both types have sufficient buoyancy to prevent the AIII from capsizing & avoiding the necessity of a keel, so that its draft can be 6', or less. The 50' long version can carry one 40' long container or DH, or two 20' long containers or DSs. They both also carry electrically powered screws, which can be powered & controlled by the DS or DH carried by the AIIIm.   If no containers or platforms are carried, the alas (which we call "sponsons") can be raised to pass through locks or canals, 18' wide, or more. The larger, 50'x6' version can each carry two platforms, or a shipping container, with two platforms on its roof. Carrying a container or not, both sponsons can allow the takeoff, landing and storage of up-to-two Gavin Hawks, each, four in total, including refueling & servicing each one within a half-hour.

Each AIII can be used as Stationary Micro-Airport [SMA] or Mobile Micro-Airport [M2A].  Each one handles up to ten Gavin Hawks, four on their two sponsons and six on the AIIIm. And, on board the AIIIm, two-at-a-time taking off or landing & zero-to-six more stored on the roofs of
  • shipping containers
  • GaviHas, or
  • the open deck, for a maximum of ten.
An equal number of Gavin "SuperSea" Hawks  [GSSH] can land on, be refueled & takeoff from the surrounding area of water.

This can be,
  • while docked
  • at anchor, or
  • while under way, or afloat at sea.
If all the GH and GSSH carry the maximum of 10 passengers each, the air passengers on board would be 100, either landing, taking off or resting on board.  If GaviHas are carried (instead of shipping containers) the comfortable capacity is 100 including guests, 80 people including overnight guests  or 40 for permanent occupancy. Adding the 100 transient air passengers, brings the maximum number of passengers on board to 200.


Amalric III in Convoys

Properly equipped, CDSs or CDHs can be tenders for several AIII, serving as Stationary-Micro-Airports [SMA], or herding several others sailing in convoys at sea: one or more of the AIII, also serving as Mobile-Micro-Airports [MMA]. CDSs and CDHs can drive-off and drive-on to another AIII chosen to be the "Flag" AIII [FAIII] for the group.  RDL is planning the same kind of flexibility for forming of convoys as SMA, MMA or for transport or passenger vessels, as is done for GHs. It is also possible that Mother Hawks & piloted or pilotless Master  Chief Super Hawks [MCSH] can be used to control & protect convoys of AIII.

Up-to-100s of AIIIs may be formed into conveys, to carry passengers &/or freight sea transportation, or serve as oceanic or sea based Mobile-Micro-Airports [MMA]. Each MMA can carry up-to-ten GHs, each of which may carry up-to-ten passengers, for a total of up-ro-100 air-born passengers/MMA. The combination of DHs' sea travelers and GHs' air travelers can accomodate up-to-200 passengers or 188 passengers, plus 12 crew members on the Flag CDH [FCDH], or 194 passengers, plus six crew in the Flag CDS [FCDS].  Up-to-one of the ten GHs handled by each AIII could be a Master Chief Super Hawk [MCSH] equipped to control & protect the AIII, or a convoy of up-to-100 AIIIs.  A "super" convoy of up-to-100 AIIIs can carry up-to-20,000 passengers & crew, & up to 100 MCSH w/zero-up-to-200 pilots, for control and protection.


(Another medium range RDL plan is to combine sail with motor power for AIII. As 
sails require masts & 
  • must be retractable to pass under bridges & must be avoided by GHs' rotors, then: 
  • sailing AIII are all sea goers & are restricted to three GHs landing & takeoff platforms & carrying up-to-four GHs on the AIIIm; but
  • without the ability to raise the sponsons to pass through less than 60' wide canals.)


For planning purposes, RDL targets GH's initial range as ~4,500 miles, at 400mph. Fairly small convoys, up-to-about-20 AIIIs, can be stationed in mid-ocean to service passing flocks of
GHs traveling between Continents, giving a combined maximum range of 9000 miles. Allowing one hour for de-flocking (15 min.), refueling (30 min.) and re-flocking (15 min), the 9,000 miles would take 23 hours allowing another 0.5 hours for initial flocking and final de-flocking. Airplane travel at 600mph takes 15 hours plus 4 hours for planeing and de-planeing, a total of 19 hours.  For a more typical 5000 mile trip (eg London to San Francisco CA), it would take 12.33 hours compared to 14 hours for the GH flock, including the refueling stop.  (A longer range at higher speeds could be realized by about 2016ad.  If improved fuel efficiency & costs can also be achieved, it may be possible to reduce or eliminate the need for mid-oceanic refueling of GH flocks, therefore reassigning MMA to other duties.)

Each MMA is expected to land, refuel and takeoff ten GHs (and the same number of GS2Hs, landing and taking off on water) every hour, five at a time. Fifty MMAs could service 6,000 GHs and GS2H, carrying up to 120,000 passengers in 13 daylighted hours. Roughly mid-way between the six Continents, this volume of traffic, in both directions, could be managed by 30, 20-AIII-strong-centers. Ie 600 AIIIs, handling traffic of 144,000 GHs with 1.44 passengers/day-lighted-day. On a 13-hours/7-days/52-weeks/year schedule; the annual capacity is 525.6m trans-oceanic-passengers/year. On a fairly reasonable price of $200/passenger/trip, the revenue is $105b/year, or $175m/AIII/year. For an AIII lifespan of five years, each AIII would earn $876m.  RDL targets the costs at:
  • 2% of revenue, $10.51b for building & five years of maintenance of 600 AIIIs, ie $8.72m/AIII (50 AIIIs to anchor in the Thames Estuary would require £436m).
  • 40% for the fuel produced to refuel GH and GS2H, ie total $210b, ie $350m/AIII. this supports refueling Hawks 263m times, or $800/trip or $80/passenger, if Hawks were loaded to capacity of 10 passengers on each trip
  • After the RDL planned after-profit at 20% of revenue of $4b/year, the remaining 38%, a total of  $9b/year, would be left to cover operations, including labor and overheads.  


AIII could used with one or more of the following:

  • along with independent plants near lakes, rivers (such as the Thames Estaury), lakes or sea shores with access to sunlight, wind, waves, tides and or subsurface heat (for energy) to make hydrogen to deliver in GaviHas  to:
       1.  filling stations
       2.  homes (not in Utopia or Mini-Utopia-Villages), but for
       3.  cars
       4.  Gavin Hawks or
       5.  anybody, anywhere else, who needs hydrogen
  •  on the same location, stationed as Stationary Micro-Airports [SMA] to land, refuel, and take off Gavin Hawks, which are used also to
  •  deliver hydrogen in Gavin Hawks to remote, difficult to service by road or expensive to distribute by pipeline, say, in

   1. mid-ocean
   2. Alaska
   3. Africa
   4. Siberia. or
   5. Tibet
   6. etc.

The best choice seems to be a combination of cheap (or free, probably fresh) water, & sources of energy that could be used to generate electricity.  If the price of electricity & water is low enough, then we can pay for distribution for much less than building pipelines & stop producing CO2 in many different ways. (GE once helped KE choose the best place for an aluminum plant (in Chalmette Louisiana} because we could import cheap bauxite from Jamaica and get cheap natural gas in - Louisiana.) Same idea, but let's not use oil, coal nor natural gas this time, neither (to make electricity) nor liquid fossil fuel [FF] (to run cars or airplanes).

Another application would be using the AIII, with its amas (sponsons) filled with hydrogen & carrying on-board up-to-12
GaviHas, choosing the ones already designed to deliver hydrogen. The towns and cities around the lakes, rivers or seasides could be supplied from the amas  for filling stations & directly to other customers. The surrounding areas still accessible by road could be supplied from the GaviHas.  Up-to-10 Gavin Hawks, also carried by AIII, could supply areas otherwise completely inaccessible.

(No $20 trillion pipelines and no CO2! emissions!!).

Special versions of Gavin Hawks have their hulls shaped to takeoff and  land on water.


Amalric III [AIII] as Aircraft Carriers.

  1. service flocks of 6,000 Gavin Super Hawks [GSHs] (within a day).  This would handle 60k passengers/day, up-to 2.9m passengers/year. Doubling this facility by using an equal number of Gavin "SuperSea" Hawks, would double this capacity to 5.8m/year
  2. travel from up-to-4500 miles away,
  3. depart for round trips of destinations
  4. up-to-2,200 miles away
  5. remain overhead for an hour, or land and take off, then
  6. return to the same, or another, convoy for refueling
  7. then return home or go to 
  8. any other available refueling bases up to 4500 miles away, to refuel for another 4500-mile-trip etc, etc.
  • Zero-to-all passengers can be left upon the landing. This gives a combined maximum traveling trip range of indefinate miles for 2,400 GSHs, carrying up to 24,000 troops
  • One or more of such convoys could also serve as bases for a PATCOs for control and protection of local operations (flight, land, refuel & takeoff), control Mother Hawks &/or Master Chief Super Hawks [MCSHs] in charge of flocks of GSHs operating in combatant areas
  • Six-hundred AIII, ie 30, small-20-strong convoys could handle 144,000 GSHs and GS2Hs (with 1.44m {armed} troops)/day. Assuming making available three times the 72,000 GSHs used (ie 216,000) for military use, from the 3.2m planned as GSHs, this amounts to 1.35% of the 16m GHs total and 6.75% of the 3.2m GSHs. RDL's target cost is $120k/GSH, ie $2.6b/year over 10 years
  • The target-cost/AIII, for production (and maintenance over 10 years) is $8.6m.  Presumably, their use, both in war and peace, would both be covered, for 600 AIIIs, ie $5.2b. This totals $7.8b, covering both GSH and AIII, ie $782m/year 
  •  The use of AIII, GSHs and GS2Hs in war could offset up-to-the-$782m/year from their civil earnings of $9b/year, ie 8.7% 
  • After the first ten years, roughly 2010 through 2020, it is expected that the range of GCHs could be extended to 10,000 miles, or longer, effectively eliminating the need for AIIIs used to produce hydrogen and refueling GSHs, at sea, for use in war or peace
  • RDL will study the advantages of encouraging "trans-global" migration by using AIII, GH and GSH, especially instead of airplanes, aircraft carriers, fossil fuel & nuclear power
  • Another area of RDL investigation is related to weapons & methodology (carried by troops for self defense) & avoiding needs to destroy homes, businesses, industrial plants (to prevent enemies supplying weapons, troops or terrorists to enemy forces).  This includes; but is not limited to detection and destruction of land mines, booby traps, etc without significant cost or danger to friendly troops.


Choice of Mobile Micro Airport [MMA] Location
In September and early October of 2008, the newly elected, Conservative Mayor of London, John Johnson, was considering a proposal to build a new airport in the Thames Estuary. At this time, RDL recommended its alternative plan for an anchorage  in the Thames Estuary for convoys of AIIIs,  to serve as Mobile Micro Airports. This would obviously replace the need for airport expansion for fossil fueled [FF] aircraft, but handling  landing, refueling and takeoff of hydrogen fueled, Zero-CO2, GHs, including the newly specified Gavin "SuperSea" Hawks [GS2H].

On the 10th Oct 2008, The Labor Government Transport Secretary, Geoff Hoon, approved applications for expansions of the Stansted Airport, to handle 10m more airplane passengers annually, flying in & out of London. It is extremely doubtful if this plan can be justified or financially feasible in the next four or five years, in view of the current international financial problems. The necessary funds would be best provided to build & maintain the first 25 of the planned 600 AIIIs, for five years ie $216m. Twenty five AIIIs could handle 3k Hawks with 10 passengers each, ie 30k passengers per day & 11m passengers/year. This is slightly less than than $20/passenger to provide the equivalent of an airport.